"Normalize" audio Setting

The Downmix Audio setting, Original or Normalize

Is there a detailed explanation as to what “Normalize” does?
Is this a volume normalizer, leveler, compressor, Dynamic Range Compression etc?
What is is actually doing to the Audio?

Is this only for multi-channel audio sources that it affects?

Is it just setting the Surround channels of say 5.1 and making them match the L/R?
Or is is making all channels the same volume?

I have a 2.1 setup, so multi-channel audio is always downmixed for me, but i can not really hear any difference in toggling this setting in Infuse, either with 5.1 or 2.0 audio.

I am trying to find a way to “normalize” volume alike to how the native Apple TV “Reduce Loud Sounds” setting does, but I noticed, since the tvOS 17 release, it not work as well. I fails to recover volume after it drops after a loud part, resulting in quite, sometimes muffled audio for a while, until you pause or seek. It used to be great at boosting the lower quite audio, and lowering the loud audio, keeping everything at the same volume.

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Normalized is only needed if the connected audio device (usually headphones) is not able to handle full range audio.

In general, you can use Normalized if you are experiencing static or crackling audio in louder scenes

Yeah I was wondering that too and how it does affect the apple tv’s reduce loud sounds which crops the dynamic range in some kind of midnight mode. Can be r should they be combined. And my homepod stereoset has also an option to enhnce the dialogue. I would also like to know not when to use it. Because thats logicall but what the code behind that button does. Making the dyinamic range smaller? Dimming peaks with a standard decibel, balancing out the EQ and compress it with a virtual compressor or maybe theres an AI balancing tool behind it. Would like to know what it does. Then I know in which senarios I can use it. I want audio to be correct. Not the most beautiful for my ears. So I like to see what this settings really does to your output?

If you haven’t seen this yet, @twistedpair did some detailed comparisons here:

I saw that thread, and the one about DTS etc and audio clipping/distorting, i never had such issues with Infuse, other than a while back, a different issue where loud sounds would just cause a huge dip in volume, and it would never recover unless you paused and resumed. I created thread on that issue, and it was resolved some time ago.

As far as “normalize” discussion on that linked to thread…
It only seems to indicate that with Normalize ON, they are simply lowering all channels volume output to a fixed amount.
And, i guess, though it was never actually stated, that this is only affecting multi-channel audio that needs to be downmixed to Stereo…

It does not appear to be any sort of dynamic, on-the-fly Volume Leveling to equalize volumes to the same level (some also use the term normalize for this process as well, hence why it is confusing).

I am wanting a “Night Mode” / Volume Leveling, that affects all sound sources, stereo and Multi-channel downmixed, that boosts quite audio, and lowers loud audio parts to match a set volume level. Apple’s own “Reduce Loud Sounds” seems to do this, but has been buggy and not as good of late.